Zusammenfassung – CATS Instrument Rating Validation

IR-01 – Federal Aviation Regulations

Instrument Rating, requ. > 50NM / NFL w/ CPL, IFR FPL, under IFR, cond. < VFR, Class A; record -> LOC/type app name safety pilot, DUAL -> instructor & instrument cond., iR time -> solely by reference to instruments, simulated IF -> category & class ratings for aircraft, helicopter IR and currency requirements

  • CPL w/o IR limited to 50NM and no NFL, IR in same category and class of aircraft
  • At least IR for VFR on IFR FPL
  • Loc/Type approach and name Safety Pilot
  • Logging portion of DUAL Instrument time -> instructor acts &, actual instrument conditions
  • Instrument time -> controlled solely by reference to flight instruments
  • PIC IR -> under IFR, weather conditions < VFR, Class A airspace
  • Simulated Instrument flight -> appropriate category and class ratings for aircraft

Instrument Currency, preceding 6m -> 6 instrument APP on type & holding & intercepting and tracking courses nav system, in aircraft, simulator or training device, OR IPC -> then recency for 6m, elapsed 6m to pass IPC (appr. FAA examiner, instrument instructor or FAA insp.)

  • IFR currency requirements: act as PIC in IMC in preceding 6 months before the month of flight (by day):
    • 6 instrument approaches on type
    • holding procedures and intercepting and tracking courses using navigational system
  • (may be made in aircraft, flight simulator or flight training device)
  • or passed instrument proficiency check -> recency of experience requirements met for further 6 months
  • If elapsed -> 6 months to pass Instrument Competency Check (by approved FAA examiner, instrument instructor or FAA inspector)

PIC responsibilities, avoid other aircraft – weather cond. permits, check altimeter system, familiar RWY lengths and aircraft take-off / landing data / alternates available, sterile cockpit -> critical phases

  • avoiding other aircraft when weather conditions permit (operating under IFR or VFR)
  • check altimeter system for IFR flight
  • become familiar w/ runway lengths, aircraft’s take-off and landing data / alternatives available
  • Sterile cockpit -> distractions during critical phases reduced

Obstacle clearance, MEA nav signal coverage AND obstacle clearance, MRA -> signal reception inadequate, obstacle clearance 1000ft / 2000ft (mountainous area) 4NM, altimeter setting -> airport ELEV, MOAs -> military activities

  • MEA = Enroute altitude -> acceptable nav signal coverage and obstacle clearance
  • MRA -> reception of signals inadequate
  • IFR flight obstacle clearance 1000ft (terrain) / 2000ft (mountainous area) at 4NM of course
  • Altimeter setting at airport -> airport ELEV
  • MOAs -> separate military activities from IFR

VMC Minima,<1200’-> CoC & 1 SM,>1200’-> 500′ bel., 1000’ above, 2000’ horizontal, vis 1 SM (Class E 3 SM), > 10000’ vis 5 SM, RVR unavailable -> as ground visibility (2400 RVR = 1/2SM)

  • Below 1200ft CoC and 1 SM
  • Above clouds 1000ft, below 500 / 1000ft (>10K), horizontal 2000ft/1SM  (>10K)
  • Visibility Class E <10K E 3 SM > 10K always 5 SM
  • RVR inoperative / not reported -> RVR minimums as ground visibility (2400 RVR = ground visibility 1/2 SM)

Alternate minimums, No IAP -> descent from MEA, approach and landing basic VFR, VOR APP -> 800 ft & 2 statue miles, Precision Approach -> ceiling 600 ft, 2 SM (at ETA), decided for alternate -> landing minimums for APP, no alternate required -> 2000 ft, 3 miles +/-1h

  • Only VOR -> 800 ft ceiling, 2 miles
  • Precision Approach -> 600 ft, 2 miles (at ETA)) -> Helicopter?
  • Standard IAP -> 2000 ft, 3 miles (1h b/a ETA)
  • No IAP -> descent from MEA, approach and landing under basic VFR
  • landing minimums for approach to be used

Helicopters, Alternate minimums -> 200 ft above APP minima & at least 1 statute mile,NOT LESSmin. vis for APP, no alternate required ->1000ftaboveELEV/400 ftaboveAPP minima&2 statute miles(3 miles ok)visibility,ETA + 1h

Flight Plan & ATC clearance, prior entering controlled airspace Class E w/IMC & Class A, 180° = westbound

  • FPL to be filed & ATC clearance received
    • prior to entering controlled airspace w/ IMC
    • before entering Class E w/ IMC or
    • Class A
    • departing from airport during IMC outside controlled airspace, then entering Class E
  • VFR on top, westbound (180-359°) even thousand + 500ft
  • VFR practice instrument approach -> avoid clouds, inform ATC will not permit VFR

Accidents/Violations, ATC report -> priority, NTSB Part 830

  • ATC may request report of rule violation -> priority was given
  • Accident / Incident Publication -> NTSB Part 830

IFR checks and inspections, altimeter / transponder -> EOM, 2 y hence, VOR check 30 days -> date, place, bearing error, sign., max. tolerance 4° btw. 2 ind. bearings

  • altimeter settings and transponders re inspection (Jan 5) -> EOM (Jan 31), 2 years hence
  • VOR check every 30 days
    • log date, place, bearing error, signature
    • max. tolerance: 4° btw. 2 indicated bearings of VOR


Pressure probe issues, alternate probe -> altimeter & airspeed higher & VSI mom. climb, Ram air input & whole blocked -> airspeed indicator (only) = altimeter (1st no chance then increase at climb), static port iced -> VSI pointer remains 0

  • Use of alternate static pressure -> altimeter reads higher , airspeed reads greater +/ VSI momentarily shows climb
  • Pitot tube = Ram air input and drain whole blocked -> airspeed indicator (only) acts as altimeter, climb -> first no change, then increase
  • Add FR-F146 -> Static/pitot system blocked, lower the nose and level the wings to level flight attitude by use of attitude indicator

Altimeter, pressure altitude w/ 29.92, standard datum plane, below 18000′

  • altimeter shows pressure altitude
    • standard datum plane
    • Set altimeter to 29.92“ – altitude indicated
    • below 18000″
  • Type of altitude at FL210 -> pressure (pressure altitude)

Gyro -> resistance to deflection of spinning wheel

  • Properly functioning gyro -> resistance to deflection of spinning wheel / disc
  • Static port iced -> VSI pointer remains 0
  • Practical test electric gyro prior starting engine -> Electrical power, listen for any unusual or irregular mechanical noise

Altimeter settings, 10 feet per 0.01, for better vertical separation, IFR check -> altimeter setting +/- 75’ ELEV

PA (Standard Altimeter Setting 29.92")
+Δ QNH (10 feet per 0.01“)
= DA(QNHA) (Altimeter setting) - (QNH)
+Δ temp
= TA
  • 29.92“ altimeter setting, pressure 30.57“, ELEV 650 ft -> display seal level
  • 30.11“ altimeter setting to 29.96“ -> 150 ft lower
  • FL250, altimeter setting 28.92“ -> pressure altitude = 24000ft (- 1000ft)
  • 6500ft MSL, altimeter setting 30.42“ -> pressure altitude = 6000ft
  • altimeter lower altitude than actually flown -> air temperature warmer than std
  • True Altitude lower than indicated altitude -> colder temperature than std
  • Altimeter settings for -> better vertical separation
  • Altimeter 8000 feet -> (!) Triangular bug between 0 and 1
  • Preflight check altimeter prior IFR -> current altimeter setting, indication within 75 feet ELEV

Turn and slip indicator, coordinated -> ball middle, slipping -> needle/ball same, skidding needle/ball opposite (centrifugal greater, horizontal / load incr.), min. aircraft -> indirect bank attitude, prior engine start -> needle centered & full fluid, taxi turn ->needle (turn) – ball opposite

  • Coordinated turn -> ball in the middle
  • Indication for quality of turn -> ball of the turn indicator
  • Miniature aircraft of turn coordinator -> Rate of roll and turn =  indirect indication of the bank attitude
  • Displacement turn coordinator during coordinated turn will -> increase as bank of angle increases
  • Prior starting engine -> needle centered, tube is full of fluid
  • Slipping turn -> needle and ball same direction
  • Skidding turn -> needle and ball opposite direction
  • Skidding turn to left, lift / center. Force, load factor -> Centrifugal force is greater, horizontal lift and load factor increased
  • During taxi
    • ball moves opposite turn, needle in direction of turn
    • left turn – min. Aircraft turn to left, ball moves to right
    • right turn –  min. Aircraft turn to right, ball moves to left

Attitude Indicator, (max.) 180° turn -> slight climb and turn (=opposite), precession, unreliable > 5° tilt, deceleration -> descent, acceleration -> climb, pre-takeoff -> horizon bar stable 5 min, altitude corrections <100’ -> half bar width attitude indicator

  • 180° steep turn to right, rolled out -> slight climb and turn
  • Max errors bank and attitude indicator, when rolling out of -> 180° turn
  • Rolling out from 180° turn -> turn in opposite direction of skid
  • Error due to precession rolling out of straight-and-level flight from 180° turn to right -> min. aircraft slight turn to left
  • Unreliability indication -> bar tilts more than 5°
  • Deceleration of aircraft attitude indicator -> descent
  • Accelerated attitude indicator -> climb
  • IFR pre-takeoff check -> horizon bar should effect and become stable after 5 min
  • Correct altitude corrections < 100 ft -> half (less than a full) bar width on attitude indicator

Heading indicator, pre-takeoff -> 5min set magn. heading & proper alignment after taxi turns, gyroscope heading inoperative -> magnetic compass, taxi check magnetic compass -> swings freely & ind. known headings, most accurate 90/270°

  • IFR pre-take check vacuum driven heading indicator -> after 5 min set indicator to magnetic heading and check for proper alignment after taxi turns
  • Taxi check magnetic compass -> swing freely and indicate known headings
  • Readings magnetic compass most accurate -> 90° and 270°
  • Gyroscopic heading indicator inoperative, primary bank instrument -> magnetic compass

General, airborne weather avoidance -> no assurance, EFD -> new capabilities and simplify, TAA warning -> flashing red,

  • Airborne weather-avoidance radar -> no assurance of avoiding IR conditions
  • EFD -> new capabilities and simplify basic flying task
  • Warning message TAA -> flashing red annunciation w/ repeating tone

Roll standard-rate turn, NORTHERLY -> OPPOSITE (magnetic dip characteristic), SOUTHERLY – SAME, EASTERLY/WESTERLY -> appr. correct heading

  • Indication roll into standard-rate turn:
    • from northerly – opposite heading
    • from southerly – same heading
    • easterly, westerly approximate correct heading
  • Northerly turning error magnetic compass -> magnetic dip characteristic

Fundamental skills IR

  1. Cross check (first fundamental skill)
  2. Instrument interpretation
  3. Aircraft control

Pitch, attitude indicator, altimeter (most pertinent) and VSI (+ airspeed); descent -> PWR, PITCH, ATTITUDE, LEVEL OFF 50ft before, w/o att. indicator -> airspeed / altimeter stop, VSI reverses, level flight -> altimeter / airspeed  stop prior reversing, attitude exceeds limits -> airspeed indicator and altimeter, PITCH add. to bank instrument -> attitude and turn indicator

  • Instruments for pitch correction, when deviated from assigned altitude -> attitude indicator, altimeter and VSI
  • Most pertinent information pitch control -> altimeter
  • Constant airspeed descent from level cruising -> simultaneously reduce power, adjust pitch, using attitude indicator
  • Leveling off descent, maintaining airspeed -> 50 ft before
  • w/o attitude indicator, approximate level pitch attitude reached when -> airspeed and altimeter stop and VSI reverses trend
  • level flight attained -> altimeter and airspeed needles stop prior to reversing their direction of movement
  • attitude indicator exceeds limits, which instruments be relied on to determine pitch attitude before starting recovery -> airspeed indicator and altimeter
  • Pitch instruments in addition to attitude indicator -> altimeter, airspeed indicator and VSI
  • Entering constant airspeed climb
  • Supporting to bank instrument – attitude indicator and turn indicator

Recovery, unusual attitude -> ^PWR, vPITCH, -BANK; spiraling -> vPWR, -BANK, ^PITCH (level), spiraling NOSE LOW -> -BANK, ^PITCH, vPWR

  • unusual attitude -> add power, lower nose (pitch), level wings (bank), return to original attitude and heading
  • spiraling -> Reduce power, correct bank attitude, raise nose to level attitude
  • spiraling,nose low / increasing airspeed-> Correctbankattitude, raise the nose to level attitude (pitch), reducepower

Primary Instruments, level standard-rate turn: BANK -> attitude, then turn; PITCH -> altimeter, PWR -> airspeed indicator, PITCH airspeed change -> attitude and VSI, straight-and-level: BANK -> heading, least appr. PITCH -> attitude

  • Establishing level standard-rate turn
    • Primary Bank instrument -> initially attitude indicator, then turn indicator
    • Primary Pitch instrument -> altimeter
  • During level standard-rate turn
    • Primary for Bank -> Turn and slip indicator or turn coordinator
    • Primary to PWR, if airspeed reaches desired value -> airspeed indicator
    • Pitch instruments during airspeed change -> attitude indicator and VSI
  • In straight-and-level flight
    • Primary for Bank control -> heading indicator
    • least appropriate need for pitch -> attitude indicator

Standard-rate Turns, before over to final APP controller, 2 min, Half- 4 min, (!) left turn through 0° less

  • Prior to handed over to final approach controller, all turns -> standard-rate turns
  • Standard-rate full turn = 2 min
  • Half standard-rate full turn = 4 min (e.g. 135° = 1m 30s)
  • ! 090° – 300°, turn to the left -> 90 + 60 = 150°, less than 1 minute


IR-03 – Flight Planning and Enroute

  • Airspaces on En Route Low Altitude Chart -> Limits of controlled airspace, military training routes and special use airspace
  • Sources latest status airport conditions – Airport facility directory, Distant (D) NOTAMs
  • Close FPL, no control tower – upon landing by radio or telephone to any FSS or ATC facility
  • Transitioning VFR to IFR on composite FPL -> prior contact nearest FSS, close VFR portion, request ATC clearance
  • Cancel IFR flight plan – VFR, not Class A
  • Compulsory reporting points, w/ VOR/DME VORTAC – fixes to define the route
  • Estimated time en route on IFR flight plan – point first intended landing
  • Most current en route and destination flight information – FSS


  • Not qualified as alternate (also TSO-C129 or TSO-C196 GPS equ.)
    • only standard approach is GPS (at destination and alternate)
    • NAVAIDS unmonitored
  • Notify ATC -> avg. TAS 5% or 10 kts
  • Fuel requirements IFR flight -> to alternate + 30 min (helicopter), 45 min (aircraft) normal cruise speed
  • (H) – HIWAS
  • HIWAS -> SIGMETs, … Wind shear advisories


Composite FPL, may be requested any time is VFR, airway transition points, fixes for segments, clearance limit fix

  • may be requested – any time a portion of the flight will be VFR
  • Fixes, first part IFR – all airway transition points, fixes defining route segments, clearance limit fix

FDC NOTAMs, by FAA AFSS/FSS; advise changes IAP, charts, restrictions; NTAP -> NOTAM(D) & FDC NOTAMS

  • Issued by -> FAA AFSS/FSS
  • Purpose -> advise of changes flight data affecting IAP, aeronautical charts and flight restrictions
  • Information in NTAP – current NOTAM (D) and FDC NOTAMs

IFR FPL, VFR and IFR, /A, w/ RNAV -> /I, altitude 1st leg, total usable fuel, NEVER use VFR waypoints

  • 1 composite flight plan -> VFR and IFR
  • 3 DME, Mode C -> /A, RNAV & Mode C -> /I
  • 7 altitude 1st leg
  • 12 total usable fuel
  • Usage of VFR waypoints – NEVER

E6B CAS calculation

  1. Bring 0° above altitude in k feet
  2. Bring temp over that altitude mark
  3. TAS on outer ring
  4. Read CAS on inner ring

IR-04 – Human Performance and Limitations

  • Centrifugal force w/o visual aid -> rising or falling
  • Technique scan traffic l/r -> systematically focus on different segments for short intervals

Hypoxia, tunnel vision and cyanosis, difficult to recognize

  • symptoms -> tunnel vision and cyanosis
  • dangerous w/ 1 pilot -> symptoms difficult to recognize

Hyperventilation, breath slower rate

  • Consciously breath at slower rate than normal

Automation, complacency, risk increased, new hazards

  • Lighter workload glass flight instrumentation -> complacency by flight crew (Bequemlichkeit)
  • Pilot believes advanced avionics enable operations closer to personal / env. limits -> risk is increased
  • Automation has proven -> to present new hazards in its limitations

Cockpit lighting at night, regular light -> impair night adaption, preserve -> minimum level light intensity

  • regular white light, flashlight, will impair night adaptation
  • to preserve night vision -> Minimum level interior lighting intensity

Illusions, narrower or up sloping RWY -> appear higher / lower approach, haze -> greater distance / lower approach, climb -> tumbling backwards, rapid acceleration -> nose up, obscured horizon, dark scene -> false horizons, abrupt head movement -> Coriolis illusion

Narrower RWY

  • aircraft will appear higher than actual, leading to lower approach
  • similar to upsloping runway
  • haze -> illusion (traffic/terrain) greater distance, lower approach
  • Abrupt climb -> tumbling backwards
  • Rapid acceleration during take-off -> nose up attitude
  • Sloping cloud formation, obscured horizon, dark scene spread, ground light and stars -> false horizons
  • Abrupt head movement, prolonged constant rate turn in IMC – Coriolis illusion

Spatial disorientation, if body signals used, must be suppressed / interpret and reliance instruments

  • More subject -> if body signals used to interpret flight attitude
  • Sensations -> must be suppressed, total reliance on instruments
  • Prevent/overcome -> properly interpret and rely on indications of instruments and act accordingly

IR-05- Weather

Pressure, PA = DA -> std temp, PA = TA -> std atmosphere, altimeter setting -> TA at ELEV

  • PA = DA -> Std temperature
  • PA = TA -> Std atmosphere
  • Altimeter setting -> TA at field elevation
  • Force in Northern Hemisphere, right angle to the wind, deflects it to the right until to the isobars -> Coriolis

Troposphere, mid latitudes -> 37000’, abrupt change in lapse rate

– height mid latitudes -> 37000 ft

  • abrupt change in temperature lapse rate

Stratosphere, small changes in temp with altitude

  • small changes in temp with increase in altitude

Primary cause of weather -> variation of solar energy

Surface friction

  • Cause surface winds flowing across isobars at an angle, rather than parallel
  • Winds of 2000ft parallel to isobars, surface winds cross isobars at an angle toward lower pressure and weaker

Jet stream, > 50 knots

  • = 50 knots

  • weaker & farther north in summer

Air mass

  • Body of air -> extensive area and has uniform properties and moisture


  • Wind based fog -> advection and upslope fog

Advection fog, warmer airmass to colder surface (moving inland in winter), costal area,

  • Moist air from warmer to colder surface -> Fog
  • localities most likely -> coastal area
  • most likely ->  air mass moving inland from the coast in winter
  • usually forms -> moist air moving over colder ground or water

Radiation fog (ground or surface based temperature inversion), clear sky, calm nights, no wind, land surface, warm moist air, stable air

ground radiation on clear, cool nights when wind is light

  • Most favorable -> clear sky, no windsmall spread, over a land surface
  • Most conducive -> warm moist air over low flatland areas on clear calm nights
  • = Temperature inversion
  • form in stable layer of air
  • beneath inversion layer high relative humidity -> smooth air, poor visibility due to fog, haze or low clouds
  • radiation on clear, relatively still night

Clouds (High, middle and low and extensive vertical development), high clouds -> ice crystals, nimbus -> rain, ceiling -> BKN or OVC, structure of clouds before ascending -> stability of air before lifting, fair weather cumulus -> turbulence at or below, mountain slope unstable -> extensive vertical development / stable -> stratified clouds (little vertical), steady precipitation -> stratiform clouds, greatest turbulence -> CB

  • High clouds mostly -> ice crystals
  • Nimbus -> rain cloud
  • Ceiling -> lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena aloft reported as broken or overcast
  • Structure or type of clouds as a result of air being forced to ascend -> Stability of air before lifting occurs
  • Fair weather cumulus -> turbulence at and below
  • Clouds with unstable air mass forced up mountain slope -> Clouds with extensive vertical development
  • Clouds very stable moist air force up slope -> Stratified clouds with little vertical development
  • Steady precipitation, in contrast to showers, preceding a front is an indication of -> stratiform clouds with little of no turbulence
  • Clouds with greatest turbulence -> Cumulonimbus

Water vapor, clouds / fog and dew -> condenses, amount water vapor depends -> temp, dew point -> temp air cooled to saturate, enhanced growth precipitation -> upward currents

  • Clouds, fog and dew form -> water vapor condenses
  • Amount of water vapor air can hold depends on -> temperature
  • Meteorological condition refers „dew point“ to -> Temperature air must be cooled to become saturated
  • Enhanced growth rate of precipitation -> upward currents

Frontal waves -> slow moving cold fronts or stationary fronts, passage front -> wind change

  • Frontal waves normally form on -> slow moving cold fronts or stationary fronts
  • Weather phenomenon always associated with passage of a frontal system -> wind change

Unstable air, turbulence, good visibility, cumuliform clouds, showers, clear-type icing <-> moist air, orographic lifting, 3°C per 1000ft

  • Turbulence, good surface visibility, sherry precipitation, cumuliform type clouds, rain showers and possible clear-type icing in clouds
  • Cumuliform clouds, good visibility, rain showers and possible clear-type icing in clouds -> Unstable, moist air, orographic lifting
  • Moving over warm surface ->  Cumuliform clouds, turbulence and good visibility,
  • Unsaturated air flowing up slope (dry adiabatic lapse rate) -> 3°C per 1000ft

Stable air, ambient lapse rate, stratiform/stratustype clouds, poor visibility, steady precipitation

  • Ambient lapse rate
  • Stratiform clouds
  • Poor visibility, steady precipitation and stratustype clouds

Turbulence, small erratic changes -> light turbulence, severe -> maintain level flight

  • Small erratic changes in altitude and/or attitude -> light turbulence
  • Severe turbulence -> maintain level flight attitude

Squall, AHEAD cold front, TS severe / heavy hail / destructive winds, 16 – 22 knots > 1 minute

  • ahead of a cold front
  • TS most severe conditions like heavy hail and destructive winds
  • wind conditions -> sudden increases airspeed 16 to 22 knots, > 1 minute

Thunderstorms, moisture, unstable lapse rate lifting; embedded, obscured / not be seen, MATURE -> start of rain/precipitation, DISSIPATING -> down drafts, always -> lighting

  • Requirements -> Sufficient moisture, unstable lapse rate and lifting action
  • Embedded TS -> obscured by massive cloud layers and cannot be seen
  • Mature stage:
    • Start of rain at surface
    • Precipitation begins to fall from cloud base
  • Dissipating stage
    • Downdrafts
    • always associated weather phenomenon  -> lightning

Microbursts, seldom > 15 min, 3 and 4 MOST SEVERE, max. 6000 ft / min, headwind 45 knots within -> 90 knots

  • Duration -> seldom longer than 15 m
  • Involved in microburst encounter, most severe down draft -> 3 and 4
  • Max downdraft -> 6000 ft / min
  • Aircraft headwind 45 knots within microburst, total shear expect -> 90 knots

Wind shear, strong (low level) temp inversion / near TS, jet stream or frontal zone, wind shift / wind speed gradient at any level, all sides of TS and under, sudden change in airspeed

  • strong temperature inversion and near TS
  • either wind shift or wind speed gradient at any level in atmosphere
  • atmospheric condition -> with low level temperature inversion, jet stream or frontal zone
  • with TS -> all sides of TS and directly under TS
  • climb or descent inversion or wind shear -> sudden change in airspeed

Standing lenticular altocumulus, very strong turbulence, warm front most critical before passes airport

  • very strong turbulence
  • related to frontal activity -> warm front most critical period is before the front passes the airport

Tailplane icing, first place to form, buffeting to tailplane stall, AP disc. / retract flaps / increase PWR, results -> nose down pitch, sudden change elevator forces, buffeting, first place to form in icing conditions

  • AP disconnected, use partial or no-flap approach configuration
  • increase power and retract flaps
  • Manifests in -> uncommanded nose-down pitch or sudden change in elevator forces
  • After extending flaps, most likely reason for buffeting -> Incipient tailplane stall
  • Entering an area of icing conditions, first place to form -> tailplane (Höhenflosse)

Freezing rain higher altitude, temp above > 0°C, ice pellets, highest rate of accumulation, clear ice -> high airspeed / precipitation / large volume water / temp freezing

  • temperatures above freezing at some higher altitude
  • Presence ice pellets -> freezing rain at higher altitude
  • Indicates freezing rain at higher altitudes -> ice pellets
  • Most likely highest rate of accumulation -> Freezing rain
  • Clear ice on leading edges of airfoils -> relatively high airspeed, area of precipitation, large volume of liquid water, temperatures close to freezing

Freezing drizzle, warmer air at higher altitude

  • During flight -> warmer air at higher altitude

Wet snow at your flight altitude -> temperature is above freezing at your flight altitude

Prevention of any hazardous ice accumulation:

  • Spraying wings w/ glycol
  • Aircraft anti-icing
  • Aircraft de-icing system

Icing in flight, prevention -> spraying glycol & anti-icing & de-icing system, AP OFF, altitude change <-10°C or above freezing, first place antenna and probes, PWR and angle of attack controlled descent, least likely clouds -> high, light ice upper surface more dangerous than heavy icing on leading edge

  • AP use / mode of operation if icing suspected -> AP OFF
  • Alleviate ice in stratiform clouds -> change altitude colder than -10°C or above freezing temperature
  • Flying through supercooled water droplets, first place -> antenna and probes
  • Ice accumulation while also rolling -> set power and angle of attack for a controlled descent flight profile
  • Clouds least likely icing -> high clouds
  • Light icing on upper surface of airfoil more dangerous than heavy icing on leading edge

Frost, temp surface below DP of surr. air, <0°C, early airflow separation -> loss of lift (30) drag (40), aerodynamic degradation, possible loss of lift

  • Temp collecting surface below dew point of surrounding air & dew point colder than freezing
  • hazardous -> causes early airflow separation – loss of lift
  • structural icing, most hazardous -> ice accumulation can result in aerodynamic degradation, possibility of loss of lift
  • Ice, snow, frost coarse sandpaper thick -> reduce lift by 30, increase drag by 40 percent

Icing Scenario, land faster than normal, ATC: trace / light / moderate / severe

  • IFR cross-country flight, VMC 2000ft AGL, destination airport 3°C, picking up rime ice -> perform approach and land using faster than normal speed
  • Air temperature +8°C at 1350 ft std temp. laps rate, appr. freezing level -> -2°C per 1000ft = + 4000ft = 5350 ft MSL
  • ATC reporting of icing conditions -> trace, light, moderate, severe

De-icing, “weeping wing“ -> leading edge protection, de-icing boots -> immediately upon visual detection, continue to cycle, operate several times to clear ice

  • “weeping wing“ -> leading edge protection
  • Using deicing boots -> use them immediately upon visual detection of any ice
  • After exiting area of icing conditions, use de-icing boots -> continue to cycle boots several times, to remove residual ice possibility left behind…
  • Suspected icing  w/ de-icing system -> operate pneumatic de-icing system several times to clear ice


IR-06 – Weather Services

TAF, primary destination weather, 5 statute miles RWY, 00000KT -> Winds CALM, VV008 -> obscured & visibility 800ft, FL060, BL/WX RA/TB MDT -> At 6000 ft, between layers, moderate turbulence, moderate rain; VRB -> <= 6 knots, > 6SM -> P6SM, REA42SNB42 -> Rain ended 42, snow 42 past hour, WS005/27050KT -> Wind shear 500 ft from 270° at 50 kt

Primary source forecast weather destination ETA -> TAF

expected RWY complex weather -> TAF

Geographical proximity within – 5 statute mile radius from center airport RWY

1800Z 00000KT -> Winds CALM

VV008 -> Sky is obscured with vertical visibility of 800 ft

FL060, BL/WX RA/TB MDT -> At 6000 ft, between layers, moderate turbulence, moderate rain

VRB when wind is -> 6 knots or less

Visibility greater 6 SM -> P6SM

WS005/27050KT -> Wind shear at 500 ft AGL from 270° at 50 kt

METAR REA42SNB42 -> Rain ended 42, snow began 42 past the hour

Weather charts, area forecasts -> several states / WND -> > 20 knots, constant pressure chart -> winds / temp aloft, Surface Analysis -> front pos., pressure patterns, temp, dew point

Area forecasts, 18h -> area of several states

WND in Area Forecast -> Sustainable wind surface speed > 20 knots

Constant pressure charts -> Winds and temperature aloft

Surface Analysis Chart -> actual front positions, pressure patterns, temp, dewpoint, wind, weather, obstructions to visionat valid time of chart

500 millibar Constant Pressure Chart at FL180 -> Observed temperature, wind, temp/dew point along proposed route

AIRMETS (fc. period 6h)

SIGMETS, hazardous conditions to all aircraft, valid 4h, schedule basis 6h, e.g. sand / dust storms or icing, icing -> PIREPS, AIRMETS, SIGMETS, WW -> unscheduled / issued as required, HIWAS -> SIGMETS, AIRMETS, Forecast alerts, Center Weather advisories

warning of weather conditions hazardous to -> all aircraft

unscheduled, valid for -> not to exceed 4 hours, may be reissued for additional 4 hours

schedule basis every -> six hours

Met. condition -> widespread sand or dust storms affecting at least 3000 square miles …

Accurate on icing conditions -> Pilot weather reports (PIREPs), AIRMETS, SIGMETS

Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service broadcast over selected VORs of -> SIGMETS, CONVECTIVE SIGMETS, AIRMETS, Severe Weather Forecast Alerts, and Center Weather Advisories

Issuance severe weather watch bulletins (WW) -> unscheduled and issued as required

ATIS, absence cond/vis.-> ceiling > 5000’ & vis > 5 miles, updated upon receive official, cloud layer thickness = TOPS – OVC (not BKN) – ELEV

Absence sky condition and visibility -> ceiling > 5000 ft and visibility > 5 miles

updated -> upon receipt of official weather regardless of content change or reported values

Cloud layer thickness = TOPS – OVC (not BKN) – ELEV

IR-07 – Radio Navigation

VOR, 1 scale = 5°, 1° in 60 NM = 1 NM, max. error = +/- 4° radial, station maintenance -> removal ident, passing = reversal TO FROM, VOR max. off set airways -> 80 NM, bearing change 1/2 mile -> 10° to 20°

VOR 1 scale deflection = 5°

1° in 60 NM = 1NM

1/2 scale deflection in 30NM -> 5° * 0.5 NM = 2.5 NM

Station maintenance / inoperative -> removal of identification feature

Station passage -> complete reversal TO FROM

Max error -> +/- 4° of radial

off set. airways, VOR max. apart -> 80NM

After passing VORTAC CDI 1/2scale deflection to right, remains constant -> flying away from radial

OED VORTAC -> Class H, 40 NM

Single coded identification every 30 seconds from VORTAC -> DME operative, VOR inoperative

Bearing change p. 1/2 mile deviation from desired arc -> 10° to 20°

GPS, operations along entire „en“ route, approved? -> Flight Manual Supplement, w/ ILS DME -> in lieu of OM, hand-held -> aid for sit. awareness,  LDA not aligned w/ RWY

en route approved -> must be operational along entire route

approved for IFR -> Flight Manual Supplement

installed with ILS DME may be used -> in lieu of OM

hand-held GPS -> aid for situational awareness

Difference LDA – ILS -> LDA not aligned with RWY

DME, slant range in NM, 6000’ AGL -> 1, minimize error -> 1 mile each 1000’, greatest error -> high / close to VORTAC, inoperative -> no code tone

Distance displayed -> slant range distance in NM

Indication directly over VORTAC, 6000 ft AGL -> 1

Minimize slant range error, how far away -> > 1 mile for each 1000 ft above

Greatest error -> high altitudes close to VORTAC

inoperative -> airborne DME may appear normal, but no code tone / not transmit a coded identification audio tone

VOR Check, GND -> max 4° 2 ind. bearings, OBS rotated last dot -> 10° – 12°, published A/FD (or suppl.), airborne check -> max +/- 6° of radial

ground text / max. variation ->  between two indicated bearings of VOR

OBS rotated, last dot should be -> 10° and 12°

publications ->  Airport/Facility directory (or appropriate supplement)

Airborne check, max. tolerance -> +/- 6° of designated radial

Airborne VOR check max. allowable tolerance between 2 indicators DUAL VOR -> 4° between 2 indicated bearings of VOR

VOT Receiver check, set OBS to (360) radial & CDI centered, max. +/- 4°, 176° TO and 003° FROM

CDI centered, OBS to radial -> 360 radial

Max. tolerance -> +/- 4°

Acceptable tolerances -> 176° TO and 003° FROM, respectively

VOR receiver check, aircraft located on designated checkpoint at airport surface -> Set OBS to radial, CDI must center plus or minus 4° with FROM

RNAV, way point -> predetermined geogr. position route of IA -> optimal routes and altitudes

Way point -> Predetermined geographical position RNAV route or RNAV instrument approach

primary benefits -> optimal routes and altitudes


Airspaces, G – 14500′ MSL, no ATC; E – floor IAP 700’ airway 1200’ AGL, transition area 700’ above CTRL;, D 2500’ AGL, 4NM lateral; C – 2-way comm. / Mode C; B -10000’ MSL, + VOR; A >18000’ MSL – FL 600, IR required, VFR on Top permitted

Class A: 18000ft MSL – FL600, IR required, VFR on top permitted

Class B: – 10000ft MSL, min req.: + VOR / 2-way comm / Mode C = 4096, auto pressure altitude reporting (if not request from ATC 1h before), transponder fails – ATC may auth. deviation

Class C: 2-way comm / Mode C, DEP CTRL outer area – separation all IFR, part. VFR

Class D: – 2500ft ft AGL, 4NM lateral limit, FPL cancelled 2-way comm. before entering, transponder gets inactive -> continue as planned

Class E: Floor w/ IAP 700ft AGL, w/ airway 1200ft AGL, transition area -> 700 ft or more above contr. Airspace

Class G: – 14500 ft MSL, not controlled by ATC

Military training routes above 1500ft  -> IFR Low Altitude En Route Chart

When reception of radio signals off airway inadequate, altitude for fix -> MRA

Minimum altitude jet route -> 18000 feet MSL

REIL (Runway End Identifier Lights), synch. flashing lights each side, purpose -> identification approach end of runway

– Synchronized flashing lights on each side

– Purpose -> identification approach end of runway

Runway, RWY exit sign -> sign designation and direction of exit named TWY from RWY, exit -> cross both, solid and dashed lines, displaced threshold—>!, night operations app end of RWY and threshold lights -> taxi and take-off (only vis. green thr lights), RWY – 500 – TD marker – 500 TD zone

-> sign designation and direction of exit taxiway from runway

-> for exiting cross both, solid and dashed lines

Displaced threshold -> Arrows leading to threshold mark

Runway exit sign -> points toward named taxiway, leading off runway

Night operations authorized between approach end of runway and threshold lights -> Taxi and take-off (only toward visible green threshold lights)

RWY  –  TD marker  –  TD zone

/    500       /        500    /           = total 1000

Taxiways, 15-ACPH -> mandatory sign, white letter, red background, entrance to RWY from TWY, aircraft to hold short of RWY, markings -> yellow and dashed lines nearest RWY

“Runway hold position“ sign 15-ACPH

-> mandatory instruction sign

-> white letter, red background

-> entrance to runway from taxiway

-> aircraft to hold short of runway

-> markings -> yellow and dashed lines are nearest runway

Taxiway directional sign -> designation and direction of taxiway leading out of an intersection

„No entry“ sign -> paved area where aircraft entry is prohibited

“Destination“ sign in movement area -> direction to take-off runways

ILS critical area, markings -> position on TWY, clear of ILS critical area, hold short of sign, bottom yellow

Markings -> position on taxiway, clear of ILS critical area

-> holding short of sign

-> bottom yellow

-> clear of ILS critical area

VASI, normal GP 3.0° (near red, far white), 3 bars -> 2 bar VASI for upper GP, all lights red -> level off!, tricolor -> red, green, amber, one light source, VASI -> safe obstacle clearance

Normal GP angle (RWY 12) -> 3.0°

2 bars -> GP – near bar red, far bar white

3 bars -> GP – 2 bar VASI for upper GP, departing on high side -> far bars change from red to white

All lights red -> level off momentarily to intercept

Tricolor -> red, green, amber, one light source

-> Safe obstacle clearance approach area

Climb, supporting instruments -> Attitude indicator and turn coordinator

Maintain level flight, condition for pitch attitude -> airspeed, air density, wing design and angle of attack

Relationship centrifugal force and horizontal lift in coordinate turn -> equal

Constant bank level turn, rate of turn -> horizontal lift, vertical lift decreased -> angle of attack must be increased, increased airspeed -> rate of turn decreases, radius increases _> increase angle of bank or decrease angle of attack, …

Force causing turn, rate of turn depends on -> horizontal lift

-> Vertical component/lift decreased as result of bank = angle of attack must be increased

Increased airspeed -> rate of turn decreases, radius increases -> to maintain constant altitude – increase angle of bank or decrease angle of attack / pitch attitude

Decreasing airspeed, increasing bank <-> rate of turn decreases, radius increases -> maintain level flight – decrease angle of bank or increase angle of attack / pitch attitude

Traffic 2 o’clock, 20° WCA to right -> (60° – 20°) 40° to right of airplane

Expected from pilot on IFR flight plan, when descending or climbing in VFR -> executive gentle banks l/r at frequency permit continuous visual scanning of airspace

Wind shear, tail to calm -> airspeed and pitch increase & tend. above GS, head to tailwind -> PITCH decreases, requ. THRUST increase then reduced, VS increases, IAS decreases, the increases to app speed

3° glide slope, tailwind to calm wind -> airspeed and pitch attitude increase, tendency a to go above glide slope

Tailwind to headwind, power management for constant IAS and ILS glide slope -> Lower than normal initially, followed by further decrease, then increase

Headwind shears to tailwind, maintain IAS -> PITCH ATTITUDE decreases, REQU THRUST increased then reduced, VERTICAL SPEED increases; IAS decreases, then increases to approach speed

headwind TO tailwind -> airspeed & pitch decrease / go below GS

tailwind TO head / calm -> airspeed & pitch increase / go above GS (PWR lower than normally requ. further decrease)

Wake turbulences, max. jet transport take-off -> high angle of attack & high gross weight, longest hazards -> light quartering tailwind, upwind vortex remains over RWY, land beyond large jet touchdown point,

Near maximum behind jet transport take-off -> high angle of attack and high gross weight

Wind prolongs longest hazards of wake turbulence, landing -> light quartering tailwind

Taxi to rwy 4 for dep, expect takeoff of airliner ray 29, wind 330° 4 kts -> upwind vortex would tend to remain over runway

Landing behind large jet aircraft -> beyond jet’s touchdown point

Crosswind 7 knots on vortex -> upwind vortex would tend to remain over the runway

ATC, “minimum fuel“ -> advisory, altimeter setting -> ATC periodically advises, contact departure -> TWR instructs (!), report ATC not RDR contact -> leaving final approach fix inbound final app, ATC 160 -> IAS 160 knots within 10 knots

Declare „minimum fuel“ to ATC -> advisory, indicates emergency possible

Obtain altimeter setting IFR in Class E -> ATC periodically advises pilot

Take-off into IMC low ceilings, contact departure -> when tower instructs to change

Report ATC when not in radar contact -> when leaving final approach fix inbound on final approach

ATC requests speed 160, 20NM airport -> IAS to 160 knots and maintain that speed within 10 knots

„CRUISE x feet“ clearance, authorized to vacate altitude, conduct flight any altitude min. IFR, climbs or descents from x, pilots discretion

-> authorized to vacate altitude x without notifying ATC

-> authorizes to conduct flight at any altitude minimum IFR altitude to x

-> authorizes climbs or descents  from x at pilot’s discretion

No clearance vectored ILS approach course, maintain last assigned heading & query ATC

no approach clearance -> maintain last assigned heading

passed localizer course -> continue on assigned heading, query ATC

Always in Clearance, destination airport (or fix) & route & altitude & DP name, number and or transition, CLEARED AS FILED -> always destination airport

CLRD TO ___ AS FILED – MAINTAIN 6000 – S0704 before DEP – DEP CTRL 24.9 always contain -> destination airport and route

Abbreviation always in departure clearance -> name of destination airport or specific fix and altitude

Always in abbreviated IFR departure clearance (radar environment) -> destination airport, altitude, DP name, number and/or transition, if appropriate

Abbreviated „CLEARED AS FILED“ will always contain name -> of destination airport in FPL


ATC Clearances without pilot request -> DAs, STARs and contact approaches

May cancel IFR flight plan -> in VMC, outside Class A

Emergency, deviation ATC clearance -> notify ATC of deviation asap

Within 1000′ of assigned altitude, climb / descent rate ->500 and 1500 ft/min

VFR restriction to IFR flight -> when pilot requests it

No IFR w/o flight plan -> and until receives clearance to entering controlled airspace

Departing no control tower, clearance void time indicates -> advise ATC, no later 30 minutes of intentions, if not off by void time

Response IFR clearance -> read back assignments, vectors or any part requiring verification

ATC may assign MOCA, special conditions within -> 22 NM of VOR

“Land and Hold Short” clearance -> options to accept or reject, regardless of meteorological conditions

Instrument Departure, at least possess textual description, or graphic, „No DP” in REMARKS of IFR flight plan, std. IP climb gradient 200ft p.NM

-> at least possess textual description

-> if accepted, pilot must possess textual or graphic description

Wish no instrument departure procedure -> Enter „No DP“ in REMARKS section of IFR flight plan

ATC Instrument procedures std IFR climb gradient -> 200’ / NM

When state position on airport when calling tower for take-off -> when departing from runway intersection

Preferred IFR routes beginning with fix, normally routed to the fix by -> an instrument departure procedure (DP) or radar vectors

Climb procedure-> Maintain optimum climb on centerline airway, without intermediate level-offs, until 1000 ft below assigned altitude, then 500 to 1500 feet per minute


RWY 9 take-off, 413 ft/min, 140 knots -> 140 / 60 = 2.33 NM / min -> 413 x 2.333 = 968 ft/min

9 DME ARC, 206° radial -> on 9 DME radial and approaching R 206

Departure procedure terminates -> At STAKK intersection

Via radar vectors to R6 -> will be vectored by ATC to R6

TAKEOFF minimums -> with minimum 480’ per minute, 150 knots / 60 x climb rate per NM

ATIS 125.25 (1400-0600 ++) -> daylight saving time -6h -> 0600 to 2200 local

STAKK minimum altitude to cross -> 10200 ft

120 knots, 400 ft / NM = 800 ft / min

Charts, COP = Change over point, else mid-point

COP = Change over Point

No COP -> mid-point = halfway point

15 DEM fix, 350° heading -> 1, direct

MOCA, T or *, guarantees signal coverage

-> T or *13700

-> guarantees signal coverage

Rate of climb altitude changes > 1000 ft -> as rapidly as practicable 1000′ above / below, then 500 to 1500 ft / min

IFR clearance VFR on Top, only pilot request, cleared -> VFR cruising altitude on magnetic course + 500’ > MEA, reports are as IFR, minimum IFR altitude, min. distilled. from clouds & vis. appropriate, rules -> VFR and IFR, IFR rated pilot climb through cloud layer, then VFR on Top

– altitude when cleared -> VFR cruising altitude appr. to magnetic course (= cardinal altitude + 500’), > MEA

-> only upon pilot request, when conditions suitable

– Reports required -> same as IFR flight

– Minimums -> Minimum IFR altitude, minimum distance from clouds and visibility appropriate to altitude selected

– Rules -> VFR and IFR

– IR rated pilots climb through cloud layer then VFR -> to VFR on Top

prohibited in Class A

Holding, 200 knots, > 14000’ -> 265 knots, radio comm failure -> begin EAT, first outbound leg / timing VOR -> over or abeam holding fix / VOR

– speed 5000’ -> 200 knots

– speed > 14000’ -> 265 knots

– radio comm. failure -> 7700, begin EAT (e.g. 1015)

– Timing first outbound leg nonstandard holding pattern -> over or abeam holding fix

– Timing VOR -> outbound leg begins over or abeam VOR

Great Falls RCO -> Remote communications outlet for Great Falls FSS

Minimum nav requirement identify ANGOO waypoint -> 1 VOR receiver (switching VORs)

Back course Jefferson county airport -> additional navigational function

(H) -> Availability of HIWAS

Min. crossing altitude at VOR descriptor

Climbing to ass.igned altitude on airway -> on centerline, except to avoid other traffic in VFR

High altitude airways >= 18000′ MSL -> highest IFR altitude eastbound 17000 ft MSL, westbound 16000 ft MSL

Off airways, < 200 NM away, 1000 ft obstacle clearance -> MAA, MCA, MRA, MOCA and MEA; MOCA -> 22NM VOR sign. coverage, MEA -> nav signal AND obstruction clearance, no MCA – lowest altitude crossing fix -> MEA

Operation off established airways at 17000 feet MSL no farther away than -> 200 NM

Off airways over mountainous areas -> 1000 feet above highest obstacle 4 NM

Guaranteed for MAA, MCA, MRA, MOCA and MEA -> 1000 ft obstacle clearance

MOCA -> VOR signal coverage 22 NM

MEA -> navigational signal coverage AND obstruction clearance

No MCA specified, lowest altitude crossing radio fix -> MEA

Approved GPS en route -> approved and operational alternate navigation system


260° 24kt VAR 17° E = 243° 24kt, E6B

Arrival Charts, simplify clearance delivery, ATC deems appropriate, unless pilot requests „NO STAR”

– STARs -> simplify clearance delivery procedures

– # approach procedures Bradley International -> 3 (right bottom corner, ILS/DME)

– APP CTRL, TWR, GROUND frequ. DFW from Abilene -> Abilene is in WEST, 125.8, …

– Point arrival AQN.AQN2 begins -> ACTON VORTAC

– Conditions ATC to issue a STAR -> when ATC deems appropriate, unless pilot requests „NO STAR“

– Beginning IGN.JUDDS2 arrival -> IGN VORTAC

– Departure heading leave CREEK -> 350°


-> SDF course width 6° or 12°, LDA width

Stabilized approach, correct speed on GP before < TDZE + 1000ft, RoD <1000 fpm & bank angles < 15° <500’ AGL, rate of descent depending on -> Ground Speed

-> correct speed on GP before descending below TDZE + 1000’ (1268 ft MSL)

-> rate of descent < 1000 FPM < 1080′ MSL and bank angles < 15° < 500′ AGL

-> rate of descent depends on -> Ground Speed

Approach speeds, max proc. turn 200 kts IAS, 1.3 x stall speed circling category B, 5kt faster -> min. for Cat. C, assigned altitude until established on segment of IAP, sim. app -> TWR frequency, no holding reversal required -> vectored, drift corrections -> acc. est. before OM, heading corr. <2°, ATC radar control -> course, ASR, PAR, monitoring -> civil radar instrument approach minimums published

Max Speed procedure turn -> 200 knots IAS

Aircraft categories based on -> 1.3 times stall speed, at max gross landing weight

Circling to land category B airplane, 5 knots faster than max -> approach minimums for Category C

RDR vectored, APP clearance, last assigned altitude until -> established on segment of published route for IAP

Radar advisories simultaneous approaches -> TWR frequency

When holding pattern reversal not required -> when radar vectors provided

Tracking inbound localizer, drift corrections -> accurately established before OM, heading corrections < 2°

ATC radar approved control service -> Course guidance to final course, ASR, PAR approaches, and monitoring of nonreader approaches

Surveillance approach -> airports w/ civil radar instrument approach minimums published

Glide Slope 3°, wind shears -> GS incr. – RoD incr., head to tailwind -> airspeed and pitch decrease, tend. go below GS

Change wind direction -> GS increasesrate of descent must increase

Headwind shears to tailwind -> Airspeed and pitch attitude decrease, tendency to go below glide slope

RNAV (GPS) RWY 36 approach to LIT, GS 105 knots -> 3.0°, 557’ / min

Precision Runway monitoring, radar system monitor parallel RWYs, monitoring 2 comm. frequencies sim.

-> RADAR system to monitor approaches closely spaced parallel runways

– may require -> monitoring 2 communication frequencies simultaneously

Instrument Approach, VFR practice clouds -> unable & remain CoC, alternate -> landing minimums published, terrain / obstacle clearance -> min. altitude on IAP

VFR Practice enter clouds -> advise „unable“ and remain clear of clouds

Alternate, landing minimums -> Landing minimums type of procedure published

Terrain and obstacle clearance dep. on adh. of -> minimum altitude shown on IAP

IAP charts, fly-by *, fly-over (*), SIAP fixes – IAF, VOR/DME-A procedure -> 1 OR and DME but no special equipment, BARO-NAV <20°C -> DA, FAS height, terrain unsafe, T / black triangle -> non standard take-food min & dip proc., MSA -> 1000ft obstacle clearance 20NM, FAF ILS -> GS intercept

No procedure turn barb in approach chart -> procedure not authorized

MSA -> 1000 ft obst. clearance 25NM, NOT NAV signal coverage

10300 MSA -> safe clearance above highest obstacle in sector 25 NM out

FAF ILS approach -> GS intercept

Special equipment VOR/DME RNAV approach -> NONE

Sequence marker beacons MAP -> White – rapid dots

Minimum requirement VOR/DME-A procedure -> one VOR receiver and DME

IAP fixes / SIAP -> letters „IAF”

Fly-by waypoints -> Stars without a circle

Fly-over waypoints -> Stars with a circle

BARO-VNAV NA below -20°C -> DA, FAS height, terrain is unsafe when temp lower

T w/ black triangle minimums section -> Take-off minimums not standard, departure procedures are published

ILS approach

– Range facility with ILS, last 2 letters of localizer -> Middle compass locator

– Immediately after FAF, IFR conditions, GS warning flag -> permitted to continue approach and descend to localizer MDA (non-precision approach)

– Parallel ILS -> minimum of 1 1/2 miles radar separation

– GS and localizer centered, airspeed too fast, adjustment -> power only

– Diff LDA to standard ILS -> LDA offset from runway

– log ILS approach toward instrument currency -> ILS approach only credited if use of limiting device

– rate of descent required to remain on GS -> increase as GS increases

– Rate of descent to stay on ILS GS -> must be decreased if GS is decreased

– approach not cleared, vector to ILS course, pass through localizer -> continue as assigned and query ATC

– Radar vectored, point of descent -> when established on segment of published route or IAP

– “Straight in” LOC approach -> begin final approach w/o procedure turn

– DME availability on ILS/LOC -> IAP indicate DME/TACAN channel in LOC frequency box

ILS marker beacons, 200ft MM approach height, MM inoperative -> no adjustments, FAF -> flash to point, GS malfunction -> use VASI GS, IM indication -> 4 dots p.s. flashing white light

– Approach height MM typical ILS -> 200 ft

– Passing OM, ATC advises MM inoperative, adjustments -> no adjustments required

– FAF – always with flash to point

– OM passed, VASI in sight, GS malfunction -> continue using VASI glide slope

– Indications IM -> 4 dots per sec and flashing white light

ILS approach charts

– Descent procedure S-ILS 9 -> descend to 2500 while established on LOC course inbound, intercept and maintain the GS to 991 (DA)

– ILS runway MALSR, penetration of obstacle identification services (OIS) -> published visibility for ILS is no lower than 3/4 SM

– 2 steps, why 2 VOR LOC receivers – utilize step-down fix

Substitutes, highest minimum by any single component, ILS -> LOC min. GS inoperative, no min. substitute necessary for min. MM inoperative, substitute OM, MM or other ILS -> compass locator or precision radar

– More than one component of ILS unusable -> use highest minimum required by any single unusable component

– Substitution during ILS approach -> LOC minimums substituted for ILS minimums, when GS inoperative

– Facilities substituted for inoperative MM w/ affecting minimums -> substitution not necessary, minimums do no change

– Substitute permitted for OM, MM or other ILS component -> compass locator or precision radar

ASR approach, additional information to heading -> when to commence descent, position each mile from RWY, arrival at MAP

GPS approach (RNAV, TSO-C129 or TSO-C196 GPS)

– below minimums, proceed to alternate -> once diverted, may fly GPS approach

– alternate must have -> approved instrument approach other than GPS

– Reduced RAIM notification -> immediately MAP

– RAIM not available -> use navigation system other than GPS for approach

– Display LNAV+V -> ADVISORY vertical guidance is provided as aid

– „LNAV/VNAV“ flag -> MAP

– baro-VNAV approach not authorized -> remote altimeter setting required or areas of hazardous terrain

– vertical guidance by baro-VNAV  -> altitudes or defined angles as fixes using local altimeter setting

– Pre-flight GPS RAIM availability -> RAIM predicted to be available

– handed off to final approach controller -> one half standard turn rate

– Modifying default sensitivity while GPS approach will -> disable GPS annunciator

– Minimum airborne equipment for RNAV RWY 36 -> any airborne RNAV receiver

– en route use -> additional approved and operational navigation system approved for the route

Visual, ATC assigned, radar service terminated automatically when ATC – “contact tower“, tricolor app ind. -> one unit, three colors, when precipitation. aircraft in sight & proceed VFR

Contact Approach, pilot requested

“radar service terminated” during visual approach -> Automatically ATC instructs pilot to contact tower

Differences visual and contact approach -> Pilot must request a contact approach, pilot may be assigned a visual approach

Tricolor Visual Approach Indicators -> single unitthree color visual

Conditions ATC approves visual approach -> airport or preceding aircraft in sight, proceed to airport in VFR

Contact Approach, in lieu of SIAP, pilot must request & > 1 mile vis., sure CoC

Contact Approach -> in lieu of SIAP

Requirements contact approach -> pilot must request, > 1 mile visibility, reasonably sure remaining clear of clouds

Missed Approach Procedure, circling -> climbing turn tow. RWY until MAP course, imm. when appr. lights not visible at MAP

Lost visual reference while circling, no ATC radar, MAP -> climbing turn towards landing RWY, continue turn until MAP course

ILS approach, IMC, approach lights not visible -> immediately execute MAP

Initiate MAP, passage MAP on ambiguity indicator, DH on GS & no vis. ref., MAPoint w. BARONAV/LNAV, Circling -> MAPoint & vis. < 1SM

-> passage of MAP waypoint shown on ambiguity indicator

-> arrival at DH on GS / no visual reference

– BARO-VNAN or LNAV -> MAPoint

– Circling, visibility 1SM -> MAPoint & vis < 1 mile

RVR, horizontal distance RWY, inoperative -> min as ground visibility

-> horizontal distance looking down runway from a moving object

RVR inoperative -> RVR minimums converted as ground visibility

Approach Operations

Maneuvering speed at severe turbulence -> decrease excess amount wing load

When commence side step to RWY -> asap runway environment in sight

Hydroplaning -> standing water, slush, high speed and smooth runway texture

Holding maneuver in lieu of procedure turn to be executed -> 1-minute time limitation or DME distance as specified in profile view

Waypoint to begin outbound leg -> abeam holding fix

Distress condition IFR in IMC -> not hesitate to declare emergency and obtain amended clearance

% VS lead off climb -> 10%

Level off higher airspeed than 500 FPM rate of descent -> 100 – 150ft above desired altitude

Straight in landing only with circling minimums -> runway in sight, sufficient time normal landing, cleared to land

> 1 hold needed to lose altitude -> only if ATC advised and approved

Altimeter setting 18000 ft MSL assigned -> Altimeter to current setting for climb out, 29,92“ upon reaching 18000 ft MSL

AP during icing conditions -> periodically disengage and hand fly

Malfunctions, DME > 24000 ft MSL or VOR 1 receiver -> ATC & repair, DME inoperative -> no code tone, VOR -> DME ident 30 sec, 1350 Hz, VSI difference 100 ft p.m. -> correct in flight

DME (airborne) malfunction above 24000 ft MSL -> notify ATC immediately, my continue to airport for repairs

DME is inoperative -> airborne DME may appear normal, no code tone

No. 1 VOR receiver malfunction (GS), controlled airspace, IFR -> report to ATC immediately

VOR inoperative -> DME identifier every 30 seconds at 1350 Hz

VSI diff. 100 ft p.m. -> may take off IFR, use 100 ft correction

Transponder Mode C required, all times IFR, >= 10000 ft MSL

– all times on IFR flight unless requested otherwise by ATC

– at and above 10000 feet MSL, excluding at and below 2500 ft AGL

GPS requirements, approved and operational for route, hand-held not IFR authorized

– approved and operational alternate navigation system approved for route

– hand-held GPS system not authorized for IFR

Minimum (14 CFR 91) IFR equipment, slip ind., clock, gyroscope direction ind., DME >= 24000 ft MSL if VOR requ.

Slip indicator

Clock with sweep 2nd pointer or digital

– Gyroscope direction indicator

DME at or above 24000 ft MSL, if VOR nav equipment required

Oxygen requirements, 12500 (> 30 min) – 14000 crew entire time – 15000 ft MSL suppl. passengers



Below 12500 MSL

max. no oxygen

12500 – 14000 MSL

oxygen time > 30 min

Above 14000 MSL

oxygen entire time

Above 15000 MSL

supplemental entire time


VFR -> continure & land, IMC -> 7600, assigned route, highest ass. MEA

Two-way comm failure IFR FPL

– VFR conditions -> continue VFR, land as soon as possible

– IMC conditions

no emergency -> 7600, continue assigned route, highest of assigned altitude or MEA

– in holding w/ EFC time -> depart holding fix ETA

ATC, contact -> identified & FF, resume own navigation -> own navigation & equipment, Radar Service terminated -> normal position reporting

„Radar contact“ -> identified, radar flight following until terminated

„Resume own navigation“ -> responsibility for own navigation / maintain airway by use of own navigation equipment

„Radar Service terminated“ -> resume normal position reporting


133 – utilize published step down fix

FD: 9900+00 for 9000 ft -> light and variable, less than 5 knots


Minimum conditions destination airport -> 1h around ETA 1000ft ceiling or at least 400ft above lowest app. approach minimum, 2 statute miles visibility

Weather forecast minimum alternate airport, only VOR app -> ceiling 200ft above minimums, 1 statute mile, but not less than minimum flown for the app